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PSYC 2131: Introduction to Childhood and Adolescence has four assignments. Each assignment is divided into various parts, which include questions assessing your understanding of your course text material, responses to exploratory activities you are asked to complete, and discussion postings.

Preparing Your Assignments

The following suggestions will help you to prepare your course assignments successfully. Read them carefully before you begin:

  • Refer to the Suggested Schedule for direction as to when to submit each assignment. While you are free to work through the course at your own pace, you will learn more effectively and increase your likelihood of success if you spread the work out evenly throughout the duration of the course.

Note: If your goal is to complete the course in 16 weeks, you should meet the timetable set out in the Suggested Schedule.

  • Read all assignment directions and questions before you begin preparing your answers.
  • Multiple questions can be answered by including the question number and the letter of your selected answer, e.g., 1. A; 2. B.; etc.
  • Ensure that you develop your answers to the written questions using your own words. Do not provide answers that include information copied directly from your course material. While it can be a difficult process, writing answers that express concepts and issues in your own words has direct learning benefits: this strategy will ensure that you understand the course material at a deep level, and it will increase the likelihood that you will remember the information.
  • Be sure that your assignments are clearly written and that the material is organized in a logical fashion, using correct sentence and paragraph structure. Be sure to double space your lines and include your name and the assignment number at the top of the first page.
  • Proofread your final copy. Although electronic spell checkers will find most errors, they are not foolproof and can, at times, mislead you. It is still necessary to proofread your work to catch certain types of mistakes and grammatical errors. By correcting your grammar and spelling errors, you can polish your assignments and bring clarity to your ideas.

Criteria for Grading Assignments

Your written course work, including the module activities, should be independently developed and reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:

  • AIDressed the questions or assignment posed.
  • Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
  • Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
  • Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling. Students can contact the TRU Writing Centre for help with written work at https://www.tru.ca/writingcentre/Open_Learning_Writing_Centre_Support.html.

Please refer also to any aIDitional criteria that may be included in the individual assignments.

Sending Your Assignment to Your Open Learning Faculty Member

As soon as you have completed an assignment, save your document on your computer and then send a copy to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. Follow the instructions in the “Assignments” section of your course.

See “How to Submit an Assignment Using Assignment Tool” in the “Assignments” section of your course.

Be sure to include your name, the course code, assignment number, and the date of submission on the title page of your assignments, so they can be easily identified, and you get credit for all your work. Use headers in the body of your written assignments to make sure all components of your assignments are clearly identified (course code, your surname, assignment number, date [day, month, year]).

Name your assignment file as follows: course number_your surname_assignment number_date. For example, if your name is Jan Martin and you are submitting Assignment 2, name your file: PSYC2131_Martin_Assignment2_14June2015.

Note: Always keep a copy of each assignment you submit so that you have a copy to refer to in the event of a telephone or email conference with your Open Learning Faculty Member. In aIDition, many student writing manuals recommend that students keep copies of early drafts of their work to protect them against potential charges of plagiarism.

As soon as you have submitted your assignment, and while waiting for your Open Learning Faculty Member to return it, begin the next module.

When your marked assignment is returned, review your Open Learning Faculty Member’s comments and queries. Take the time to carefully go over the marked assignment. If necessary, reread sections of the textbook or unit commentary that gave you trouble. What lessons can you apply to your next assignment? Contact your Open Learning Faculty Member by phone if you have any questions or problems.

Your Open Learning Faculty Member is responsible for the grade you receive on an assignment. If you disagree with a mark, discuss it with her/him right away. Also, he/she alone decides whether you may or may not rewrite and assignment. You should know, however, that it is not customary to allow revisions of already graded work unless you make a formal appeal. This is why telephone contact with your Open Learning Faculty Member before an assignment submission is important, particularly if you are having difficulty.

 

Module 4: Adolescence

Module 4: Adolescence

Overview

Your final module in this course covers adolescence, the developmental period that bridges childhood and adulthood. Regardless of their age, students often report that memories of adolescence are still quite vivid. It can be revealing to look back on this time from the perspective of, one hopes, greater maturity!

Module 4 is divided into three topics, one topic for each of the textbook chapters you will be reading:

  • 4.1 Physical Development in Adolescence
  • 4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence
  • 4.3 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Learning Objectives

After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:

  • Summarize the major physical changes that occur during pubertal maturation.
  • Summarize the impact of pubertal change on emotions, sleep, social relationships, and sexual behaviour.
  • Discuss research findings regarding the risk factors and impact of disordered eating, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse and risky behaviour.
  • Summarize the major cognitive and social cognitive developments that occur during adolescence.
  • Summarize the factors associated with academic success and failure in teens.
  • Discuss the research findings on the impact of part time work during adolescence.
  • Describe the factors associated with the emergence of adolescence as a distinct life period.
  • Summarize the major socioemotional developmental changes that occur during adolescence.
  • Contrast the role of parents, peers, friendships and dating partners in teen social adjustment.
  • Summarize the factors associated with teen delinquency, depression and suicide.
  • Contrast the major patterns of child-caregiver attachments that have been identified and the patterns of caregiver behaviour associated with each.
  • Demonstrate, using research evidence, the impact of contexts such as family and daycare upon children’s development during adolescence.

Resources

Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283–292.

Henry, K. B. (2011) Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein’s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011). Development: Adolescence through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

 

Module 4: Adolescence

4.1 Physical Development in Adolescence

Other than infancy, no other phase of life involves as much or as rapid physical development as puberty. But unlike an infant, the pubertal teen is profoundly self-aware of the awkwardness and fraught moments associated with these bodily transformations. Your study in this lesson will highlight the intricate process of pubertal development and the psychological and social changes this engenders in the young person.

Activity 4.1: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 13 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 13.
  3. Reread the “Tips for Study and Exam Preparation” document found on the course Home Page.
  4. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 13, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

 

Module 4: Adolescence

4.2 Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Much of what we associate with the apex of human intellectual abilities emerges in the teen years. The human capacity for hypothesis generation and philosophical abstraction, criticism and invention, idealism and speculation can all be traced to the cognitive changes that emerge during adolescence.

Activity 4.2: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 14 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 14.
  3. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 14, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Assignment 4 – Adolescence (Part A): Exploration Activity 1—Barbie Dolls and Body Image

Go to the “Assignments” section on the course Home Page and complete Part A: Exploration Activity 1—Barbie Dolls and Body Image.

 

Module 4: Adolescence

4.3 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Because the young person is undergoing the myriad physical changes that lead to sexual maturation, developments relating to emotion and self have particular significance. Constructing and maintaining a coherent sense of self in the midst of these profound biological changes is a major developmental task for teens. Your reading for this topic will provide you with an understanding of the developmental changes that take place in self-concept and identity during the teen years.

Your final lesson in the course explores the changing and expanding contexts that frame adolescent development including family, peers, friendships and romantic relationships. Research findings that illuminate factors associated with teen depression, suicide and delinquency are also presented.

Activity 4.3: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 14 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 15.
  3. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 15, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Assignment 4 – Adolescence (Part B): Discussion 4—Reflections on Adolescence

Go to the “Assignments” section on the course Home Page and complete Part B of Assignment 4.

Assignment 4 – Adolescence (Part C): Written Questions

Go to the “Assignments” section on the course Home Page and complete Part C of Assignment 4. Your now completed Assignment 4 should be submitted to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking at the end of Module 4.

Assignment 4 – Adolescence (100 marks, 14%)

Introduction

This assignment is based on Module 4. It will be graded out of 100 marks and is worth 14 per cent of your final course grade. This assignment has three parts:

  • Part A: Exploration Activity (30 marks)
  • Part B: Discussion 4 (20 marks)
  • Part C: Written Questions (50 marks)

If you have any questions about the assignment, consult your Open Learning Faculty Member. You are encouraged to submit your completed assignment for grading by the end of Week 13 of the course.

Criteria for Grading Assignments

Your assignments should be independently developed and should reflect your best efforts. The grade that is assigned to your assignment work is based on evidence that you have:

  • AIDressed the questions or assignment posed.
  • Developed responses that are clear and well-reasoned.
  • Demonstrated clear understanding and application of the course material.
  • Met university-level expectations for written communication, including logical organization and correct sentence structure, grammar, and spelling.

Please refer also to any aIDitional criteria that may be included in this individual assignment.

Instructions

Part A: Exploration Activity—Barbie Dolls and Body Image (30 marks)

As your textbook authors point out, many adolescent girls struggle with body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and dieting. The causes for this state of affairs are complex and multifaceted. Even though body image issues are normative in western females, males are not immune. For example, young males with body image issues may engage in steroid abuse and exercise aIDictions. In this activity, you will read about the findings of a team of researchers interested in this issue. This group set out to research the impact of Barbie dolls on the body image of young girls.

Locating the Article at the TRU Library

For Module 12, you located and explored a variety of published articles from an electronic or e- journal. For this final course exploration activity, you will need to locate the following research article from the electronic holdings at TRU library:

Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls. Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 283–292.

If necessary, you can contact a TRU librarian to help you to access this article, but the following set of instructions should enable you to locate this resource on your own:

  1. Go to the TRU library web site at http://www.tru.ca/library/.
  2. Click Index & Databases.
  3. Click PsycARTICLES.
  4. Type “Barbie doll” into one of the search boxes and the Dittmar et al. article should appear in the results.
  5. To see the full text of the article, click either the HTML or PDF Full Text links.

Pre-reading

Before beginning the exploratory activity, you may find it helpful to re-read “Library Research 101—Doing Research at a Distance” available at http://libguides.tru.ca/c.php?g=193957.

This exploratory activity will give you an opportunity to see how research findings on child development are reported and communicated to other scientists. The Dittmar et al. article is written for a professional audience, and so you can expect that sections of it will be difficult to read and follow. There is neither a requirement nor an expectation that you understand the more complicated sections of the paper, e.g., the statistical analysis of the findings. Instead, aim to understand the paper in terms of the question(s) investigated, the methodology used to study this research question, and the implications of the study findings. You may be surprised at how much of the paper’s “Introduction and Discussion” section you can understand and follow.

Reading and Summarizing the Article

Read the Dittmar et al. (2006) article and then write a one–two page summary of it in your own words. Include:

  1. An explanation of why the researchers felt it was important to investigate the impact of Barbie dolls. The nature of the three experimental conditions used in the study.
  2. The nature of the three experimental conditions used in the study.
  3. The size and age of the children who participated in the study.
  4. The major finding of the study.
  5. Your assessment of whether the study findings provide convincing support for the promotion of more realistically shaped and sized dolls, such as Emme.

Part B: Discussion 4—Reflections on Adolescence (20 marks)

Go to the “Discussions” area on the left-hand navigation menu and complete the discussion posting entitled “Discussion 4: Reflections on Adolescence.”

In the reading for this module, you were introduced to the notion that the concept of adolescence was invented. While the biological changes associated with puberty and sexual maturation are quite clear cut, the demarcation between the life periods of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are more of a social construction and have varied historically as a result of economic conditions, war periods, etc.

In your posting, describe how your memories of your own teen years compare to present day teens and the adolescent experiences of your parents? Grandparents? In your view, what demarcates the passage from childhood to adulthood? Is it separation from the parental household, entry into the job market, completion of education, financial independence, a serious romantic partnership, or a combination of these? Are there other criteria? Explain. (15 marks)

Also comment or respond to a fellow student’s input. (5 marks)

Part C: Written Questions (50 marks)

Write a response in your own words to each of the following questions:

  1. Parents, usually nervous about their children entering adolescence, anticipate a period of “storm and stress.” Discuss to what extent this expectation is valid. (10 marks)
  2. Read the following passage from Trenton Lee Stewart’s (2007, pp. 56–57) book The Mysterious Benedict Society in which the 11–year-old protagonist Reynie tries to find his way through a house:

“Well,” he said aloud, to bolster his courage, “there’s no time to waste, so here goes.” He plunged through the doorway ahead of him (this ought to be the most direct path to the rear of the house) and, as if by magic, seemed to walk into the very room he has just left. It was cramped, brightly lit, painted black, and he could see a dark doorway in each wall.

“What in the world!” he said, turning to look behind him, then in confusion turning round again. If he hadn’t turned around, he might have kept his bearings, but now he’d lost them. He was in a maze of identical rooms. Everything looked exactly the same in every direction.

His confidence was quickly draining away.

“Now, think,” he told himself. “When you enter a room, its light must turn on automatically, and when you leave it, it goes off. But there are light switches by each door. Perhaps if you throw a switch, the light stays on. It might be as simple as that.”

With a quick inspection of the nearest doorway, however, the hope vanished. What Reynie supposed were light switches were only decorative wooden panels. He was about to turn away and retrace his steps when it occurred to him that the panels themselves might be important. He took a closer look at one. About the size of a playing card, the panel had four arrows etched into it, pointing in different directions and painted different colors. A blue arrow pointed to the right, a green one to the left, a wiggly-shaped yellow one straight ahead, and a purple one down.

Of course, Reynie thought feeling foolish. The arrows weren’t for decoration —they were meant to show the way. But which was he to believe? After going round to every panel he was no better off. Four doorways with four arrows meant sixteen arrows to choose from, and there was no apparent pattern. Reynie racked his brain: Should he follow the green ones? Green arrows on a traffic signal mean “Go.” But perhaps that was too obvious. Perhaps the red arrows were the ones to follow—perhaps that was the trick. Yet that hardly seemed fair. What if he’d been color-blind and couldn’t even tell the difference.

No sooner had this occurred to him than he knew the secret.

Using the textbook’s discussion of cognitive development, show how Reynie’s thinking illustrates aspects of both Piaget’s theory and information processing theory as they apply to young teens. (10 marks)

  1. A group of teenagers is having a party. Describe how adolescent egocentrism, imaginary audience, and personal fable concepts could lead to a party with lots of problems. (10 marks)
  2. Describe each of James Marcia’s four identity statuses and, for each, provide a brief description of a hypothetical first-year university student who typifies each status. (10 marks)
  3. You have now reached the end of your course, having covered child development from conception to adolescence. Reflect on what you have learned and identify one topic or research finding in the course that you found particularly valuable. In your own words, identify and briefly describe the topic/research finding and discuss why it has been significant to you. What question or area of research would you like to learn more about in the future and why? (10 marks)

Submission Instructions

Read the “Assignment Preparation and Submission Instructions” section carefully. As soon as you have completed all parts of Assignment 4, name and save your document, and send it to your Open Learning Faculty Member for marking. It is recommended that you submit this assignment by the end of Week 13 if you are following the 16-week Suggested Schedule.

Module 3: MiIDle Childhood

Module 3: MiIDle Childhood

Overview

When we think of miIDle childhood, we are apt to picture a school playground filled with running, shouting children. Full of energy and vitality, children make enormous strides cognitively, emotionally, and socially during these years. In this module, you will explore many developmental themes pertaining to miIDle childhood, including gender socialization, the emergence of logical reasoning, and the influence of developmental contexts ranging from family, close friends, and peers, to school.

Module 3 is divided into three topics, one topic for each of the textbook chapters you will be reading:

  • 3.1 Physical Development in MiIDle Childhood
  • 3.2 Cognitive Development in MiIDle Childhood
  • 3.3 Socioemotional Development in MiIDle Childhood

Learning Objectives

After you have successfully completed this module, you will be able to:

  • Summarize the major physical changes that occur during miIDle childhood and early childhood including brain development and motor abilities.
  • Explain and provide examples of the impact of obesity, sleep shortages, accidental injuries and illness up children in the miIDle years.
  • Summarize the major cognitive and linguistic developments that occur during miIDle childhood.
  • Differentiate the different approaches taken to the measurement of intelligence and factors that contribute to IQ scores.
  • Describe the educational challenges that children may face and factors associated with educational success.
  • Summarize the major socioemotional developmental changes that occur during miIDle childhood including self-concept, gender concepts and moral reasoning and behaviour.
  • Demonstrate the impact of contexts such as family life, peer groups and friendships, school and media on development during miIDle childhood.
  • Compare the perspectives taken by the major theoretical perspectives on cognitive development.
  • Demonstrate, using research evidence, the impact of developmental contexts such as family life, daycare, and peer groups upon children’s development during early childhood.

Resources

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Children & Family Development website at http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/organizational-structure/ministries-organizations/ministries/children-and-family-development.

Henry, K. B. (2011) Study guide for Steinberg, Vandell, & Bornstein’s Development: Infancy through Adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Mitra, S. (2010). The child-driven education. Retrieved from TED at http://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_the_child_driven_education.html.

Steinberg, L., Vandell, D. L., & Bornstein, M. (2011). Development: MiIDle childhood through adolescence. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

The Roots of Empathy website at http://www.rootsofempathy.org/.

 

Module 3: MiIDle Childhood

3.1 Physical Development in MiIDle Childhood

While brain and physical changes of the miIDle years are less dramatic than that seen in the younger years, this continuing maturation underpins the expanding capacity of the youngster to explore and engage with the world.

Activity 3.1: Text Reading and Self-Test Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 10 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 10.
  3. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 10, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

Module 3: MiIDle Childhood

3.2 Cognitive Development in MiIDle Childhood

Cognitive development during miIDle childhood can be described using the image of cursive loops. Cognitive advances occur on one front, loop back, and create opportunities for learning in other areas. For example, as children move into miIDle childhood, their thinking changes qualitatively from what was evident in early childhood. Now, the child is able to reason with more coherence and logic about events in his/her world. These logical advances open new possibilities for the child in terms of questions he or she can ask and the answers he or she can understand. Similarly, an improved ability to pay attention, to remember information, and to reflect on one’s thought processes feeds back and facilitates the mastery of a host of academic and non-academic skills. In short, it is during this period that the child begins, in earnest, to master the skills that he or she will carry throughout life.

Activity 3.2: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 11 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 11.
  3. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 11, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

3.3 Socioemotional Development in MiIDle Childhood

As students, team members, young performers and volunteers, the school-age child exerts more presence in public life. Expanded participation in the broader world goes hand in hand with enhanced psychological development in the child. The inner world of the child deepens and becomes more textured. Your text reading covers changes in the school-age child’s perspective-taking abilities, awareness of gender expectations, emotional and moral understanding.

Activity 3.3: Text Reading and Study Guide Exercises

  1. Read Chapter 12 from the text.
  2. Complete the Study Guide self-test exercises to accompany Chapter 12.
  3. Drawing from the course material you have studied in Chapter 12, and the module learning objectives, develop four or five potential exam questions. Close your books and try to answer these questions on your own. Check for accuracy and thoroughness. Refer to your books to see if your answers are correct. Review and repeat the exercise, if necessary.

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