California College San Diego Perspectives on Early America Discussion Instructions: you need to use the reader book Perspectives on Early America to answe

California College San Diego Perspectives on Early America Discussion Instructions: you need to use the reader book Perspectives on Early America to answer at TWO of these questions. Each answer should be 2-3 fairly long paragraphs and you need to use examples from the essays in your answer. Newman-Slave Revolts. Describe the slave revolts and attempted slave revolts during the 1600s and 1700s. Use examples from the essay in your answer. Newman- Frederick Douglass. From the information in this essay write a biography of the life and times of Frederick Douglass. Gudelunas- American Politics. Describe the evolution of the two party political system in our early history and use examples from this essay in your answer. Adams- Ensuring National Security. Describe the evolution of American foreign policy in our early history and use examples from this essay in your answer. Hunt-American Revolutionary war. Write a narrative that shows the evolution of the military action in the American Revolution. Ennis-Coming of the Civil War. How does Ennis describe the major causes of the Civil War? Use examples from the essay in your answer. Near mid-century Barnum sponsored the tour of the idol of the American masses, Jenny Lind, “the Swedish Nightingale.” He
presold and prepackaged her so adeptly that Lindomania had swept the Eastern cities even before her first public concert. There
were reports of people paying 25 cents to kiss the outside of her glove and 50 cents to kiss the inside of it. Products appeared
such as Jenny Lind hats and dresses. With this promotion her first concert in New York before seven thousand screaming people
was a fantastic success. Barnum had created a market for Jenny Lind before she had warbled her first note. Popular amusements
were now becoming big business. The concert tour was reaping fantastic profits.
Barnum also saw the circus as a growing form of popular entertainment and believed that it too could be highly profitable. The
American circus had evolved out of traveling shows that initially had played in colonial taverns, but by the 1800s they were
playing for rural audiences who felt left out of the growing city entertainment. By the 1830s some thirty circuses were touring the country on a fairly
regular basis. During the next few decades the circus would begin to take on flavor that it exhibits today. The circus came to town and put on a
parade, revealing just some of the sights and sounds that would be taking place under the big top. The “big top” itself began as the arena for the
traveling shows. More and more wild animal acts were added, then riding acts and clowns.
When Barnum entered the circus business he vowed to make it the Greatest Show on Earth, and he did much to live up to
that vow. The circus gave him an opportunity to centralize many of his early successes; freaks, curiosities, plays and concert
performers were all presented under one tent. He eventually joined with William Cameron Coup, who helped Barnum to
switch the circus from travel by wagon to travel by railroad cars. Also joining them was James A. Bailey, who saw a foreign
market for the circus and instituted foreign tours. After the Civil War the Barnum and Bailey Circus had achieved a near
monopoly on the circus businesses. The keen showmanship of Barnum again appeared when he imported a giant African
elephant named Jumbo. He was always looking for a new product to merchandise.
The death of P. T. Barnum in 1891 brought to a close the career of America ‘s greatest showman. He opened the way for
future mass advertising and even for present rock concerts. Tom Thumb and Joyce Heath live no longer, while Ringling
Brothers has merged with the Barnum and Bailey Circus. The memory of P. T. Barnum as the Father of entertainment will linger on.

P.T. Barnum: Father of Mass Amusements
This mini essay describes the life and times of the founder of the American entertainment business: Phineas Taylor Barnum. Barnum saw the
need for mass amusements and took the leader in our early history in the formation of popular entertainment.
Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) served as a member of the Connecticut legislature and was a temperance lecturer. However, his fame lay in his
showmanship and his promotional ability. Those who are involved in the merchandising of twentieth century mass entertainment owe a real debt to P.
T. Barnum.
Barnum read the times almost better than any promoter in American history. American cities in the first three decades of
the nineteenth century were beginning to grow in size; the factory system was taking hold, and the restless urban masses
were beginning to search for a form of popular entertainment. President Andrew Jackson, who had been elected in 1828,
represented the rise of the common people in politics; there was also room for common people in entertainment. There
was a real need for unsophisticated, mass amusements that would offer escapism but would be strictly moral. This was an
age of high morality – at least on the surface. Most religions still looked upon amusements with a jaundiced eye. Birnum
now stepped into center stage. His idea was to offer a form of entertainment that would be educational, moral, and, of
course, profitable. He recognized the new urban market and attempted to satisfy it.
In the late 1830s he decided to collect real and fake oddities and display them to the public. Take, for example, his
publicity of Joyce Heath, an elderly African American woman who claimed to be the nurse of George Washington. In 1841
he opened in New York City the American Museum, which was said to have housed “six hundred thousand curiosities.”
People came from all over the Eastern United States and even from foreign countries to view his collection of freaks.
Displayed there was a real model of Niagara Falls, Porter the Canadian Giant (who weighed 619 pounds), the Bearded Lady,
the Wooly Horse of the West, and the White Elephants of Siam. His figures were found throughout the museum. In the early
days of the museum the Feejee mermaid was the greatest attraction, but she soon gave way to one of Barnum’s enduring
finds Charles S. Stratton, better known as Tom Thumb. This midget even charmed Queen Victoria on Barnum’s foreign tour
Robert E. Lee
Klansmen felt the greatest dangers to white society came from African American voters, politicians, and from education. Remember that during the
plantation days teaching a slave to read and write had been a violation of slave codes. This feeling was carried on into the post-war era. Many school
teachers had come from the North. They were also victims of Klan harassment and violence. The Klansmen also were called “night riders,” but they did
not limit their activities to night alone; in many parts of the South they marched down the streets of small towns in day-light parades.
The Klan had some of its most noticeable success at the polls. Radical governments and African American
economic and political power were synonymous with the Republican Party. With Klan backing, Democrats
began to win elections in many Republican areas, but the strict discipline that had held the Klan together in the
early days was now breaking down. Ordinary lawlessness was being done in the name of the Klan; poor whites
now joined and used it to justify their criminal activity. Although the rural South of the late 1860s viewed the
Klan as the savior of the white race, many conservative newspapers even condoned and praised their acts of
violence-internally the society was having serious problems.
This secret society with semi-autonomous units was virtually impossible to control. In January 1869 Imperial
Wizard Forrest ordered the dissolution of the Klan and the burning of all its records. The better citizens were
now dropping out of the organization, and the quality of membership was rapidly declining. Some dens immediately followed orders; others were
reluctant to disband and cease activities. By 1871 the Ku Klux Klan, which had grown out of a social club to become a potent force in Southern
Reconstruction, was only a memory. The Klan had lasted only a few years. It had served as one of the most prominent anti-African American groups,
rising to quell the fears and channel the frustrations of white Southerners. Over the next few decades its mythology as the romantic savior of the South
would grow and lead to its rebirth in the early 1900s.
over a Native American mission and small congregation. He died just after he took over the presidency of the College of New
Jersey known today as Princeton University. His tradition as a leader of the evangelical church was continued by George
By 1740 newspapers reported that the visit of famous English evangelist George Whitefield, with his crossed eyes and
theatrical gestures, had caused a real “Great Awakening.” The First Great Awakening had arrived in America. Earlier George Whitefield had problems
with many English churches due to his powerful, emotional preaching. So he began to preach in open fields where he attracted large spirited crowds and
became one of the most popular and influential preachers of the time. In fact, with his booming voice he could preach to crowds in excess of 20,000
people. In 1738 he made the first of a series of trips to America until his last trip in 1769. He traveled to Georgia, one of his favorite places, along the
eastern seaboard to New York and New England. His preaching – which often consisted of twice a day sermons – attracted thousands. Evangelicalism as
an American phenomenon was born; colony after colony experienced the same emotional uplifting.
But the American Revolution caused this movement to slow down and religion reached a new low. Still the Great Awakening had made inroads into
established churches, and some of the churches had even split into groups, emphasizing either faith and reason or feeling and emotion. With the
conclusion of the American Revolution, religion became Americanized and evangelicalism became again visible. The Second Great Awakening now
began. This second wave of religious revivalism appeared in various areas and locales. The appearance of this new evangelical enthusiasm in New
England led to the formation of interdenominational missionary societies. Christian education began to be pushed and the American Bible society was
formed. The key figure in the revival movement in western New York was Charles Finney, a lawyer turned traveling preacher. He set up well planned
revivals with advertising and showmanship. He eventually moved to Ohio and became president of Oberlin College.
In the regions of Kentucky, Tennessee, and southern Ohio the emotional experiences took the form of
camp meetings. Pioneers from throughout this frontier gathered at meetings with singing, shouting, and
dancing along with emotional expressions of salvation. One of the largest of these camp meetings took
place in August, 1801 in Came Ridge, Kentucky. More than 25,000 gathered here to preach and sing,
swept up by this new religious movement that had great attraction for frontier people. For three days
preaching, weeping, shouting, jumping, jerking, and even some sinning took place. The wilderness shook
with the power of the religion of emotion. Evangelicalism was also evident in places other than Cane
Ridge, Kentucky.
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The Origins of the Evangelical Church
This mini essay describes the birth and development of the evangelical church in our early history and focuses upon those church leaders
known as evangelists. This church was born during the First Great Awakening of the 1700s and appeared again in the 1800s with the Second
Great Awakening and under the leadership of such charismatic leaders as Dwight Moody and Billy Sunday.
Sinclair Lewis, in his book, Elmer Gantry, written in 1927, pictured a salesman who turned to religion and became an overnight success. His brand of
emotional preaching moved his listeners to fill huge tents with their shouts of joy and public confessions of sin. While this book revealed the
shallowness and salesmanship of Midwestern evangelism, it also focused on a brand of American religion that first rose in the New England countryside,
spread from colony to colony and eventually was found coast to coast. Its permanence is evident today from the preaching of Billy Graham and his son
to cable television to stadium gatherings.
Evangelicalism first appeared during a time of public apathy with religion both here and in Europe. Religion seemed interested more in faith and
rationalism than in keeping members in church. Formal religion was leaving churchgoers cold. Ministers such as Theodore Frelinghuysen of the Dutch
Reformed Church and Presbyterian William Tennent began to preach a religion of feeling: one must vividly experience conversion and feel salvation. In
Neshaminy, Pennsylvania , Tennent established a school known as the Log Cabin College. Here he filled his pupils with the religion of emotional zeal
and many of his students began to breach this brand of religion. This belief reached new heights with the Congregational minister Jonathan Edwards,
who carried his fire and brimstone sermons throughout New England in the 1730s.
Jonathan Edwards was a key figure in this early evangelical movement that emphasized personal religious experiences and
emotional preaching and revivals. Jonathan Edwards graduated from Yale College at age 17 and began preaching in New
York City. He eventually joined his grandfather’s church in Northampton, Massachusetts ; upon the death of his grandfather
he took over the congregation. He became known for his powerful and poetic sermons. In the 1730s he began to hold
religious revivals. He was dismissed from his church over a controversy involving a test for church membership and later took
over a Native American mission and small congregation. He died just after he took over the presidency of the College of New
Jersey known today as Princeton University. His tradition as a leader of the evangelical church was continued by George
30 early_reader_4th.php5
Perspectives on Early America
Perspectives on the Pre-Columbian Indians
This mini essay focuses upon the life of the Indians in the United States before the arrival of Columbus and the mass European migration.
There were various regional cultures that had developed during this period and there were some advanced societies. There were also some
elements common to all areas.
Long before the arrival of white Europeans to America lived Indians known as Pre-Colombians. Many of these people developed regional cultures
throughout the United States from coast to coast. Some of these cultures were very advanced and developed. Two of these advanced groups were the
Hohokam and Anasazi.
There is a dispute about the origins of the Hohokam a Pima Indian word meaning “those
who have vanished.” The most widely accepted theory is that about 300 B.C. some people
migrated from Mexico into Arizona’s Gila River Basin and created a way of life referred to as
Hohokam. The Hohokam initially grew corn and other crops on the low land along the Gila.
They also built pit houses and made pottery. In addition they worked skillfully with stone,
making jars, polished, grooved axes, and other useful objects; they also practiced cremation
and fashioned human figures of clay.
Hohokam – ‘Skywatchers of the Sonoran Desert’
Hohokam – ‘Skywatchers of the Sonoran Desert’, W…
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George Gumerman, Ph. D.
They lived in a harsh environment with extreme temperatures coupled with sand storms and flash floods. By about 600fa.D. the Hohokam began to
build irrigation ditches and ball courts. The networks of canals facilitated the cultivation of extensive fields of corn and cotton. Some of the irrigation
works were very large; in fact one network covered one hundred and fifty miles. Such irrigation projects involved complex administration. While little is
known of Hohokam society, it seems to have been a peaceful one and somewhat democratic. The Hohokam houses consisted of huts made essentially of
brush and layers of dirt erected over pits. Some sort of ball game with a rubber ball was placed in the huge ball courts; this game may have been part of
a religious ceremony, but it is not known for sure.
The largest and best-known Hohokam site has been called Snaketown and is located in central Arizona. The water for Snaketown was provided by a
three-mile canal that was maintained for hundreds of years. Over the years Snaketown became the center of an extensive trade network between the
Southwest and California. Trade involved marine shells from the Gulf of Mexico to be used in jewelry as well as turquoise and copper bells.
Snaketown: July 12, 2009 – East Valley
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Before their disappearance in 1400, they had become outstanding farmers, engineers, and
craftsmen. Their remarkable irrigation projects may have allowed them to practice simple crop
rotation. In addition to the Indian maize, they grew beans and squash. This diet was supplemented
by wild foods and meat from deer, rabbits, and smaller animals. They began to weave cotton cloth
and to paint their pottery with red designs. They carved stone bowls and made turquoise pendants,
mirrors, and numerous ornaments of shell. They also developed a process of etching shells with
fermented saguaro juice, making one of the first etchings in America.
By 1400 the Hohokam were gone. The reason for their disappearance is still very much a mystery.
Some propose disease as an answer, while most feel that an extended drought caused them to leave
the area. Today the Pima and Papago Indians occupy their land; the direct connection between these tribes and the Hohokam has never been proven.
While the Hohokam rose and fell, there lived another advanced group to the north known as the Anasazi.
The term Anasazi, a Navajo world meaning “ancient ones,” refers to the people who moved into the four corners area of the Southwest about 100
A.D. and who moved from the area by 1450 A.D. The four corners area of the Southwest is the region where the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah,
and Colorado come together. This mountainous region first saw people, probably from Mexico, entering the area and building dome-shaped structures
around shallow depressions in the ground. During this period these people were essentially hunters of small game as well as collectors and gatherers of
wild foods. They were also adept at making baskets and sandals.
Mystery of the Anasazi
500 Nations – Anasazi – Chaco Canyon
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By the period 500 A.D. the Anasazi had developed an agricultural system with the growing
of maize and squash. Their settlements were much more permanent and a plain gray pottery
was utilized. Their dwellings consisted of circular pit houses lined with stone slabs, roofed
with wood, and were entered either through the roof or via an antechamber. Often the pit
houses were constructed in huge eaves or in rock overhangs of cliffs. During this same period
cotton and beans were grown and the bowl, arrow, and stone axe were utilized. Their arts
and crafts consisted of bracelets, ornaments of shell, and clay figurines.
By 900 A.D. the Anasazi began to develop larger settlements at high elevations and in
canyons. Here they built buildings above ground known as pueblos. And it is now that we
describe these people as the most impressive architects, natural engineers, and buildings of
any of the pre-Columbian United States Indians. While their villages at first were small, many of them eventually contained 200 structures. The pit
house idea evolved into a subterranean kiva, a ceremonial and social gathering place for the men. Here the men performed their religious ceremonies
around a central fireplace. There was usually a hole in the floor of the kiva so the men could communicate with the dead buried underneath.
Chaco Canyon, Kiva Corn Ceremony
Chaco Canyon, Kiva Corn Ceremony
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Chaco Canyon, Kiva Corn Ceremony
Chaco Canyon, Kiva Corn Ceremony
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The two types of structures found among the Anasazi during their pueblo period were cliff dwellings and apartment complexes. The cliff dwellings
were built into the sides of various cliffs throughout the area. The settlements were only reached by paths down the cliffs. One of the most impressive of
the cliff settlements was Mesa Verde or Cliff Palace located in southeastern Colorado. Mesa Verde consisted of twenty-three kivas and over two hundred
rooms. Over four hundred people occupied this site from 1100-1300 A.D.
Mesa Verde Nat…
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