Discussion Responces

I’m trying to learn for my Philosophy class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

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Discussion Question:

A four-month-old male infant was chosen for observation. We are to discuss what is typical for the age chosen, physically, socially, emotionally, and cognitively. Our evaluation in the four areas. Also, what Fowler would say about this stage of spiritual development.


Newborns are born with a range of abilities to make us aware they have a need. The infant should be blinking his eyes at a bright light or at the loud clapping of hands near his head (Berk, 2018, p.101). “… sensitivity to touch emerges early prenatally and is well-developed at birth, …”(Berk, 2018, p.108). The infant will display different facial expressions when it comes to taste. At birth the infant can hear a variation of sound.


The infant should be adapted to his surroundings by now. At four months he should be laughing at the funny faces we make. Smiling and cooing finding comfort in the arms of the parent or caregivers embrace.


At four months old the infant should show the emotion of anger. The red face, tears, and piercing cry can reveal anger in an infant. Laughing and smiling reveal the infant is happy. Squealing loudly with stiffening and flailing of arms and legs, reveal the emotion of excitement.


Into the fourth and fifth month the infant will discover cause and effect. During this period of development, the infant starts throwing things down to see you pick them up again. At four months old the infant will try to imitate your facial expressions. People, places and things will be familiar to the infant at this stage, as he has started to remember. By this time, you will be able to keep the infant more focused than before, things will hold his attention.

My Personal Observation:

At the loud clapping of my hands the infant blinked his eyes. When the bottom of the feet on the infant were rubbed, he revealed sensitivity. When the infant was in my arms he was smiling and content. When passed to someone he had never seen before, his eyes were wide and fidgety. It was obvious he was with someone unfamiliar. When the infant was given back to the mother, he was smiling and relaxed. When talking to the infant, I was able to hold his attention. He has developed the routine of throwing his pacifier down, repeatedly. He will reach for it with a smile.

Fowler Stage of Spiritual Development:

At four months old, this is the pre-stage. “The infant has the potential for faith but lacks the ability to act on that potential” (Fowler). “Stage 1-Inuitive-projective: Birth of imagination (adaptive feature), potential of some images to terrify and paralyze (maladaptive feature) and populated by a being or beings with great powers not unlike Superman (nature of transcendent environment)” (Parker, 2011, p.43). “Fowler (1981) described intuitive projective faith as a way of expressing faith characterized by the episodic and intuitive way that children see their world” (Parker, 2011, p.42). This is developed mainly between the ages of two – six years old. But from birth the infant’s faith will have the reflection of parents or caregivers. Outside exposures will influence the development of the infant’s faith as well.

Please write an responce of 150- 200 word cound.


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