Extraterrestrial Life Identifying Claims Excerpt Transcript Paper After viewing the first DC Excerpt Clip and the sample identifying claims and support pow

Extraterrestrial Life Identifying Claims Excerpt Transcript Paper After viewing the first DC Excerpt Clip and the sample identifying claims and support powerpoint, please view clips 3 and 4. For each clip, identify all and any claims being made in the excerpt. Who is making the claims (use names) and what is their concrete support for the claims? Be detailed. Be specific. Minimum 250 words for each clip response.I will provide you with excerpt transcript for the 3 clips each one must have a minimum of 250 words. Translation by Serena Tait
Narrator: Viewed from space our planet could be like millions of others. But Earth is alive,
filled with living breathing creatures. Is our planet the only place in the cosmos where life has
evolved, or is their life on other worlds waiting to be discovered?
[ Extraterrestrial Life ]
The first signs of extraterrestrial life has already reached our planet in lumps of rock from outer
space. Meteorites, fragments from other planets hurl through the cosmos and sucked in by the
Earth’s gravitational pull. They bring with them hidden clues about the world they left behind,
clues about what might live there, about the life forms which may share our universe. Sixteen
million years ago a piece of Mars was ripped from the red planet. After spinning through space it
landed in the icey waste of Antarctica, thirteen thousand years ago. Antarctica is a prime location
for meteorite hunters anything which falls here remains uncontaminated, perfectly preserved in
the ice.
Overspeaker: The meteorite search team was in the Allan hills area of Antarctica. Roberta Store
was on her snowmobile, looked down and saw this greenish-grey rock and she looked at it and
said “Oh that’s a meteorite” so she stopped and collected it and put it in the bag and brought it
back to Houston.
Narrator: But not realizing it could be from Mars, NASA filed the rock away labeled
“ALH84001”, it was stored with hundred of common meteorites from the asteroid belt, it was to
lie unnoticed for the next ten years. One day by chance a NASA scientist took another look.
What made this meteorite stand out from ordinary space rocks was its chemistry, it contained a
form of oxygen not found in minerals from the asteroids. But there was something even more
unusual about this little piece of rock, inside they found something you wouldn’t expect from a
dead planet, carbonates, formed from carbon and water they’re main building block of life. Were
these cinnamon brown globules really evidence that there could be life on Mars.
Gibson: The results were just startling to us, the carbon was so unusual and the oxygen
suggested low temperature and so we said this is anomalous, we have to look at it.
Narrator: Now to approach of the world’s most foremost meteorite experts, Dr. Monica Grady
for a second opinion If she could confirm the meteorite contained carbonate, it will be a major
step in the search for ET.
Grady: One of the most exciting and interesting things about 8401 is its (? 3:31) carbonate.
Carbonates are formed from water, they’re laid down by running water, and that’s how they’re
formed on the Earth, and that’s how we think they’re formed on the surface of Mars. So if you
have carbonate in a meteorite from Mars that immediately tells you that there must’ve been
water on the surface of Mars and of course if you have water, then you really do start opening up
the possibilities of life being present as well.
Narrator: She was sure the carbonate did not come from Earth
Grady: We believe that there is a small amount of martian organic carbon in that rock with a
small amount of carbon left it cannot be explained finish as, extraterrestrial contamination.
Narrator: Dr. Grady’s findings spurred NASA on.
Grady: We knew, well the scientific community knew that there was people at NASA
investigating 8401, people at Houston investigating 8401, but we didn’t exactly know what sort
of things they were finding and what sort of things they were studying.
[Aliens from Mars]
Narrator: But a few months later NASA was to make a dramatic announcement.
NASA Spokesperson:We have a number of forms which it is very tempting for us to interpret as
martian microfossils.
Grady: Amazing pictures of structures, worm-like structures almost, within the orange patches
of carbonate from these works were published, from the huge amount of meteor interest. And it
was the interpretation of what these worm-like structures were, were they fossilized bacteria?
That has been suggested by the NASA scientists. Are they simply false in the way the rock is
broken or are they indeed fossils? And they still are very very active over that question.
Narrator: Many scientists remained very skeptical.
NASA Spokesperson: Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. Personally I think
that his is exciting but I think there is a lot more, or a certain amount of additional work that
needs to be done.
Narrator: The main area of contention was the size of the tiny worm-like creatures, could ET be
this small? A thousand times smaller than the smallest known bacteria.
Grady: Bacteria is made up of cells, and the cells have walls, it has a nucleus, it has cytoplasm
which is the fluid which carries all the nutrients. And so a cell has to have a certain size to get all
those bits in and then you build the cell that makes an organism. An no terrestrial bacteria has
been found 100 nanometers in size, or none of that kind have been found.
Narrator: But they were about to be found by a geologist from Texas working in Italy.
Bob Folk: Well we came here to the (?) to look for the minerals forming in these hot springs and
I can see big bacteria I can see beautiful minerals, but it wasn’t until we got a new electron
microscope that I began to see all these very tiny forms in the 100 nanometer or a tenth of
micron range. At that time I was not familiar with the idea that biologists had that the lowest
boundary of life was 200 nanometers. So therefore I went blindly on, looking at these things not
realizing that I was beyond the bounds of life according to biological dogma at that time.
Narrator: Bob Folk had discovered another world, a world of creatures so tiny, biologists had
never noticed them. NASA scientists then joined the hunt scouring the Earth for nanobacteria to
see if they had resembled what had been found in the martian meteorite.
Gibson: And one of the places that we turned to was samples from beneath the surface of the
Earth, the Columbia river basalt, and beneath the surface at a kilometer deep we found evidence
of bacteria which were undergoing fossilization. And what we found in these bacteria, they were
similar sizes, they had similar chemistry, as they decayed and fossilized they became rich in
sources of iron, they had carbon decay products similar the bacteria and some of that in which
we saw in the martian meteorites. So we found a terrestrial example, a bacteria that here on the
Earth had matched those criteria found in the martian meteorite
Bob Folk: We find these antibacterial are very abundant in this extreme environment where the
water is so hot, that you can’t stick your finger in without it being scolded, you have to pick up
samples with tongs. And if they can survive in this extreme environment here, then they can also
survive probably in acid environments, or high sulfur environment, and they’re the only type of
life that has a chance of surviving in the extreme environment of outer space.
Narrator: Folk not only discovered a new kind of life form but one which could live in
conditions no one had thought possible, was he getting close to what life might be like on planets
far from Earth?
Discovery Channel Excerpt 2
Narrator: Until twenty years ago, few scientist believed life could exist
outside temperament conditions but for millions of years it had been
blossoming in hostile places where they had not thought to look. In 1978
the alvin submersible plunged into the depth of the Pacific Ocean. What it
found there was to change basic ideas about the boundaries of life. The
study of extremophiles, creatures of which live in the harshest conditions is
an essential part of NASA’s research into what kind of life might survive on
other planets.
Meyer: One of the things that’s happened in the last twenty years is we’ve
expanded our box in terms of where we think life can live, is the discovery
of organisms growing in environments we thought -no audio- one of the
things in hydrothermal vents we have microorganisms living in thermal
temperatures 113 degrees, above boiling.
Narrator: And some organisms can survive extreme cold, for a few years
they believed in life on the moon.
Meyer: One of the earliest marks of an organism surviving in an extreme
environment is from the Apollo era. There was a camera on the moon and
left there for a couple years and when it was brought back and they
analyzed the camera they found microorganisms growing inside the
insulation of the camera. So this microorganism went inside -no audio- for
years, and then it was brought back.
Narrator: The stowaway bacteria survived in a vacuum bombarded with
radiation. Does this mean that once life has started, it’s almost impossible
to stop? Even cold, arid Mars could be a potential incubator for life?
Meyer: So if life started, it’d have to go somewhere as Mars launched its
atmosphere and became cold and dry. It could’ve -no audio- you know
everything died and left in the intricwash that are still on the surface of mars
and or it could’ve gone to the subsurface, following the liquid water as the
planet dried out. And so today, you could still have life on Mars not exactly no audio- in aquifers deep underneath the surface.
Narrator: As we learn more about life on Earth scientists are beginning to
think what it might be like on other planets. One of their test sites is 14,000
feet in California’s white mountain, where NASA runs its project life on the
edge.
Phillips: There are a variety of conditions up on the white mountain
summit. For example, there’s a subterranean layer of permafrost up on the
white mountain summit that is likely to be similar to permafrost beneath the
surface of Mars.
Narrator: Dr. Phillip left samples of bakers meat, a very simple organism,
in a canister 13,000 feet up the mountain. After it’s been subjected to the
conditions for five months, Phillips makes the arduous journey back to the
summit.
Phillips: When we collect the yeast from the summit the first thing that
we’re gonna do is bring it back to the lab and conduct it a very simple
experiment to discover if the yeast is alive or not.
Narrator: Will the organisms have survived the extreme Mars like
conditions? Phillip warms them up and feeds them sugar.
Phillip: So this is pretty interesting, what’s happening here is that we’ve put
the yeast so it’s been exposed to the conditions up on the white mountain
into a warm fluid environment -no audio- bubbles that you can see, drifting
to the top here. That’s evidence that at least some of the microorganisms
have survived the extreme conditions up on the summit. What happens is,
the yeast, essentially they eat the sugar -no audio- respire carbon dioxide
so all these bubbles that you see here and the tiny bubbles that are moving
to the top, that’s carbon dioxide gas produced by living yeast. I believe
there probably is life -?- now I don’t know if it’s multicellular lie or intelligent
life, like we find here on Earth, I think the galaxy probably can be made up
of life, we just don’t know what it’s gonna look like.
Narrator: There’s no doubt tiny organisms can survive extreme conditions,
but if life exists on other planets, how might it evolve? Will it have become
something we can recognize as life, biologist Jack Cohen has to answer
these questions.
Cohen: We can tell some of the basic rules of evolution by looking at
what’s under the microscope. So I’ve joked and said I have four “F’s for
people to remember. Photosynthesis, have fur, -no audio- flight, flight has
many kinds: bats, birds, pterodactyl, some fish, insects. Photosynthesis,
that’s not really in there, not so different from other plants have developed
this trick using the sun’s energy. Fur, bumblebees, butterflies indeed, lots of
plants have fur to protect them. And of course the sex.
Narrator: Cohen believes these phenomena would occur wherever life
develops, but if there’s life would it be intelligent?
Cohen: Intelligence is like flight and fur, it’s universal. I’d be very surprised
if we didn’t get intelligent.
Narrator: Cohen is confident that life exists on other worlds, but exactly
where might it be found? Scientists believe one of Jupiter’s moons, europa,
might be a hiding place for ET.
Cohen: I’ll give you my best guess, I think that there’s just going to be -no
audio- bacteria around the little bacteria all packed together around the
warm water which is coming out from the bottom of Earth, cause they
haven’t got the sun to warm them up, they’re a long way out, they’re
dependent on heat for their heating chemical difference to fuel them and I
don’t think they’ve done very much. I’d be very surprised if they’ve
produced Shakespeare. It will be quite unthinkable for me to imagine that
even in our solar system -?- I’m just learning a small number of planets
and moons of various sizes, it didn’t happen more than once. No,I don’t
think there’s other life in the universe, I know there is other life.
Discovery Channel Excerpt Part 3
Narrator: But if life could take many different forms, is the grey that classic
aliens and evolutionary possibility?
Jack Cohen: In our planet, you won’t get anything like a human looking as
the grays. The fact that they are human looking means that they are
product of our minds and our culture and NOT a product of life developing
elsewhere.
Narrator: But thousands believe they have seen this classic alien figure.
Where does it come from, our minds or outer space? Extraterrestrial life is
a strong possibility but if it’s out there what would it look like? Would
intelligent ET be a pallid wide eyed version of ourselves. Why do so many
people believe that this is the form that alien life has taken. Paranormal
investigator Joe Nickel believes he has the answer. And it’s got more to do
with propaganda than scientific observation.
Joe Nickell: in 1947 when the flying saucer craze began among the types
we have are the little green men that are now so well known, then in the
1950’s we have the contact E? The beautiful Venetion creatures who
looked rather like us but they only lived in light. And then in 1961 this is an
important milestone because there is the betty and Barney hill abduction
and here are the first important time we get the classic little big guy big
headed humanoid.
Narrator: The classic shaped alien described by Betty and Barney hill was
to be popularized by a book and made for TV money the alien image soon
became… [widespread?] So with the classic alien creation of the media
mixed with another famous of the being no living person has actually seen.
Joe Nickell: Just as we study the imagery of Jesus…. But by the fourth
century we were beginning to get a Semitic Jesus and later everybody
recognizes what they think Jesus looked like in the same way we know
what the aliens look like and it’s a totally product of imagination and media
selection and broadcasting. There’s no credible scientific evidence that
anyone has been abducted by aliens and the only aliens that they have
evidence for is aliens with green cards.
Narrator: But Nickell’s skepticism does not convince this man, historian
David Jacobs has devoted his career to finding evidence for alien
abductions.
David Jacobs: I think that the evidence is fairly strong for me that the earth
is being invaded by aliens so to speak and that they are abducting people.
Narrator: Possible aliens is not just a phenomenon of today in earlier times
people felt afraid to different kinds of worldly beings.
Joe Nickell: some of the same human conditions that produced aliens
today in the past produced incubus and sucubuses and other demons
during the Victorian era ghosts, and we think that’s totally superstitious and
we wouldn’t be like that and yet here it is happening in our place and in our
time.
David Jacobs: They described a kind of schedule of procedures they
described the whole structure of the phenomenon itself in precisely the
same detail over and over and over again with everything to loose and
nothing to gain by saying that.
Narrator: Are these aliens fact or fabrication? Or could there be another
explanation, neuroscientist Michael Persinger believes these unpleasant
visitations could be the effect of external forces on the brain.
Michael Persinger: If you can induce an intense experience within the
brain from a strong source then the experience will sure to be bizarre but
may be experienced just as real as any other experience. They’re not
lying. They’re very real but they being induced within the brain.
Narrator: Persinger suggests that natural events can trigger alien
experiences.
Michael Persinger: First of all, those which are generated by Earth
magnetic field during geomagnetic storms, that’s when apparitional
phenomena are more likely.
Narrator: Geomagnetic storms occur when the earth’s magnetic field is
bombarded with energy from the sun.
Michael Persinger: The second one is tied to tectonic strain that is strain
within the earth that occurs often months before earthquakes, these
complex fields can also absorb the brain, all of these when applied to the
brain late at night between 2 and 4 in the morning in particular can produce
mark and intense experiences that are very real in a large amount of
people.
Narrator: Persinger thinks as many as 1 in 5 might be sensitive to these
electromagnetic fields especially just before falling asleep or in the stage
between dreaming and deep sleep the experiences are intense and feels…
Michael Persinger: When you have this experience, presence, parts of
your body are stimulated, the negative theme of the dream, hard to
interpret it next morning, well you’re going to interpret it to how culture
gives it to you. Today’s culture with an alien.
David Jacobs: There’s a problem with a lot of the geomagnetic phoneme
theories about how abductions can… it’s very difficult to reproduce
something like that in a laboratory.
Michael Persinger: The real test of science is the experiment. Ee place
the person into an acoustic chamber so its very quiet its dark, turn off the
light they have goggles on. Then we try to amplify the activities of the brain
by applying primarily a complex series of magnetic field over the right
hemisphere which is involved with dreaming more so than normal. As a
result, when the person that has these experiences intrude into their
awareness its very much like vivid dream and because the right
hemisphere is involved with the sense of presence. The individual often
experiences the presence of vivid things.
Narrator: But can this explain the dramatic experiences of people who
believe they’ve been abducted by aliens, Gary wood an ambulance
repairman from Edinburgh, Scotland is one of them. Gary felt that aliens
and UFOs belonged in movies but the experience in one August night in
1992 left that confident belief in tatters. Gary and his friend Collin set out on
a cross country journey their route puts them along a main road but there
was little traffic, but what happens next? Collin is still so effected he no
longer speaks of the night’s events, and Gary still finds it hard to describe
what he saw in the horizon.
Gary: The object was blocking the car, there was a lot of noise, ehh, few
sections were shift. I was getting closer and closer and something stopped
the car walked to me and I panicked.
Narrator: Gary’s reaction was to drive under the strange object in the sky
and accelerate on the way. But as he passed underneath it seemed to give
off a bright light.
Gary: and the impact of the shimmering caught me awake, and it’s like I
was never, and I was in total blackness, and I thought, Where can I be?
and lights were coming at my head and I thought I was dead.
Narrator: When Gary and Collin came to, they drove onto their destination
only when they arrived did they realize it was late and had no idea how to
account for the…
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