NRSE4540 Columbus State Community College Principles of Epidemiology Paper This assignment is aligned with the module objective “Demonstrate community asse

NRSE4540 Columbus State Community College Principles of Epidemiology Paper This assignment is aligned with the module objective “Demonstrate community assessments and apply the principles of epidemiology.” As part of the written assignment, you will complete the following tasks:

Identify one health problem you believe to be the most prevalent in your community. You may want to check with your local health department or a community health nurse. Also consider researching the morbidity/mortality rates health problems in your community. School nurses and are an excellent resource person to contact.
Analyze the problem using Milio’s framework for prevention from the module 1 readings (Chapter three in your text, pp 41).
Choose one of your nursing diagnoses and describe how your identified community health problem applies.
Describe the health people 2020 national goal that relates closest to your chosen Diagnosis.
Develop one-long term goal, minimum of three short-term goals and interventions for your chosen diagnosis (you will be developing a teaching plan in week 3).

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Goals: A goal is a final outcome of what is achieved after you provide the interventions. Goals are broad in nature. Consider the long-term goal to be after one year and short-term goal after six months. These are community goals and will take longer to obtain. Consider a reduction of statistics as a long-term goal as guided by the 2020 Healthy People site. Be specific and measurable to include timeframes.
(See the examples on page 89)

Recommended headings include:

Title Page
Introduction (No heading needed –assure you introduced the topic of the paper with a purpose statement) – 7 points
Content (a total of 20 points and please use the following headings)
Introduction of Your Community Problem/Diagnosis – 2 points
Analysis of Problem/Diagnosis Using Milo’s Framework of Prevention – 6 points
Compare Problem/Diagnosis to Healthy People 2020 National Goals – 6 points
Long-Term and Short Term Goal – 8 points (2 points for long-term goal and 2 points for each of the three short term goals with interventions)
Conclusion (Again no heading required – use in conclusion or in summary at the beginning of the paragraph)– 7 points
Stylistic Points– 6 total points – APA formatting with proper word count. Proper citations with 4 references – 2 references from required course material and two peer-reviewed references. See further criteria on rubric and underneath rubric.

Points: 40

Due Date: Sun, Oct 13 by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) of the US.

References

Minimum of four (4) total references: two (2) references from required course materials and two (2) peer-reviewed references. All references must be no older than five years (unless making a specific point using a seminal piece of information)

Peer-reviewed references include references from professional data bases such as PubMed or CINHAL applicable to population and practice area, along with evidence based clinical practice guidelines. Examples of unacceptable references are Wikipedia, UpToDate, Epocrates, Medscape, WebMD, hospital organizations, insurance recommendations, & secondary clinical databases.

Style

Unless otherwise specified, all the written assignment must follow APA 6th edition formatting, citations and references. Click here to download the Microsoft Word APA 6th edition template. Make sure you cross-reference the APA 6th edition book as well before submitting the assignment.

Number of Pages/Words

Unless otherwise specified all papers should have a minimum of 600 words (approximately 2.5 pages) excluding the title and reference pages.

Instructions

To be successful, complete the following steps in order:

STEP 1. Review the instructional materials and finish learning activities in this module.

STEP 2. Click here to download the rubric.

STEP 3. Create a new Word document, write your paper based on the above overview.

STEP 4. Refer to APA book and rubric for correctly formatting the paper.

Community/Public Health Nursing
Title Community/Public Health Nursing
Author Mary A. Nies; Melanie McEwen
ISBN 978-0-323-52894-8
Publisher Elsevier – Health Sciences Division
Publication Date October 1, 2018
Binding Trade Paper
Type Print
Price $118.00
Required
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Title Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Author American Psychological Association Staff
ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5
Publisher American Psychological Association
Publication Date July 15, 2009
Binding Trade Paper
Type Print
Price $28.95
Required
COURSE RESOURCES
Healthy People 2020https://www.healthypeople.gov/ NRSE_4540_M2_A4_RUBRIC: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT: HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020, LONG-TERM AND SHORT-TERM GOALS AND INTERVENTION (40 pts)
Levels of Achievement
Needs Improvement
2 to 6 Points
? Overview is provided, but key
points/ideas are missing.
? Does not engage the reader.
? Somewhat disorganized but still
comprehensible
Criteria
Introduction
Accomplished
7 to 7 Points
? Clearly states the purpose of the paper.
? Provides a comprehensive overview of topic or
questions.
? Engages the reader.
? Organized and has easy follow.
Content
20 to 20 Points
? Exceptionally well-presented and argued.
? Ideas are detailed, well-developed, supported with
specific evidence & facts, as well as examples and
specific details.
6 to 19 Points
? Content is sound and solid.
? Ideas are present but not
particularly developed or supported.
? Some evidence and details, but
usually of a generalized nature.
Conclusion
7 to 7 Points
? Summarizes paper and reflects on what the reader
has learned from the paper.
? Demonstrates persuasive thought and is well
organized.
Stylistics
6
?
?
?
?
2 to 6 Points
? Merely summarizes the introduction
or contains new ideas not present in
the paper contents.
? Somewhat disorganized but still
comprehensible
3 to 5 Points
? APA Citations are appropriate and
formatted correctly.
? Reference page is formatted
correctly.
? References are not professional or is
not formatted correctly.
? Missing 1 professional reference.
? At least 600 words or more
excluding title and reference pages.
to 6 Points
APA Citations are appropriate.
Formatted correctly.
Reference page is complete and correctly formatted.
At least 4 references provided: Two (2) references
from required course materials and two (2) peerreviewed references. *References not older than five
years.
? More than 600 words excluding title and reference
pages.
Not Acceptable
0 to 1 Points
? Does not provide an
overview of the paper or is
absent.
? No purpose statement.
? No overview of topics.
? Reader is distracted.
0 to 5 Points
? Content is not sound.
? Some ideas are present but
not well-developed or
supported.
? Includes some evidence, but
of a generalized nature.
0 to 1 Points
? Simply restates the
introduction or is absent.
? Disorganized to the point of
distraction.
0 to 2 Points
? No citations are used or
citations are made but not
formatted correctly
? Reference page is missing.
? Less than 600 words
excluding title and reference
pages.
Peer-reviewed references include professional journals (i.e. Nursing Education Perspectives, Journal of Professional Nursing, etc. –), professional organizations
(NLN, CDC, AACN, ADA, etc.) applicable to population and practice area, along with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs – National Guideline Clearinghouse).
References not acceptable (not inclusive) are UpToDate, Epocrates, Medscape, WebMD, hospital organizations, insurance recommendations, & secondary clinical
databases.
*All references must be no older than five years (unless making a specific point using a seminal piece of information)
Note: You will have three (3) attempts to submit a written assignment, only the final attempt will be graded. For each attempt you will receive a SafeAssign
originality report. This will give you a chance to correct the assignment based on the SafeAssign score. Click here to view instructions on how to interpret
SafeAssign originality report.
Last updated: 06/07/2017
© 2017 School of Nursing – Ohio University
Page 1 of 1
Chapter 5
Epidemiology
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Epidemiology Is …
… the study of the distribution
and determinants of health and
disease in human populations
(Harkness, 1995)
… the principal science of
public health
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
2
Historical Perspective
?
?
Investigations of disease pattern in the
community; comparing people who had
disease or who remained healthy
Person-Place-Time Model
?
?
?
Person: “Who” factors, such as demographic
characteristics, health, and disease status
Place: “Where” factors, such as geographic
location, climate and environmental conditions,
political and social environment
Time: “When” factors, such as times of day, week,
or month and secular trends over months and year
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
3
Different Types of Epidemiology
?
Descriptive Epidemiology
?
?
?
?
Study of the amount and distribution of disease
Used by public health professionals
Identified patterns frequently indicate possible
causes of disease
Analytic Epidemiology
?
?
Examine complex relationships among the many
determinants of disease
Investigation of the causes of disease, or etiology
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
4
Epidemiological Triangle
Figure 5-1
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
5
Agent of Disease
(Etiologic Factors)
?
Nutritive elements
?
?
Chemical agents
?
?
Poisons, allergens
Physical agents
?
?
Excesses, deficiencies
Ionizing radiation, mechanical
Infectious agents
?
Metazoa, protozoa, bacteria, fungi, rickettsia,
viruses
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
6
Host Factors–Intrinsic Factors
(Susceptibility, or Response to Agent)
?
?
?
?
?
?
Genetic
Age
Sex
Ethnic group
Physiological state
Prior immunological experience
?
?
?
Active/, passive
Intercurrent or preexisting disease
Human behavior
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
7
Environmental Factors— Extrinsic
Factors…
… influence existence of the agent, exposure,
or susceptibility to agent
? Physical environment
? Biological environment
?
?
Human populations, flora, fauna
Socioeconomic environment
?
Occupation, urbanization and economic
development, disruption
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
8
Wheel Model of
Human-Environment Interaction
Figure 5-2
Redrawn from Mausner JS,
Kramer S: Mausner and
Bahn epidemiology: an
introductory text, ed 2,
Philadelphia, 1985,
Saunders.
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
9
Web of Causation
Figure 5-3
From Friedman GD:
Primer of epidemiology, ed
4, New York, 1994,
McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
10
Ecosocial Approach
?
?
Emphasize the role of evolving macro-level
socioenvironmental factors along with
microbiological process in understanding
health and illness (Smith & Lincoln, 2011)
Challenges the more individually focused risk
factor approach to understanding disease
origins
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
11
Calculation of Rates
?
Rates are arithmetic expressions that help
practitioners consider a count of an event
relative to the size of the population from
which it is extracted
?
?
Number of health events in a specified period
Population in same area in same specified period
• Proportion multiplied by a constant (k)
• For example, the rate can be the number of cases of a
disease occurring for every 1000, 10,000 or 100,000
people in the population
?
Can make meaningful comparisons
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
12
Morbidity Rates
?
Incidence rates
?
?
New cases or conditions
Attack rate
• Number of new cases of those
exposed to the disease
?
Prevalence rates
?
All cases of a specific
disease or condition at
a given time
Figure 5-4
Redrawn from Morton RF, Hebel JR,
McCarter RJ: A study guide to epidemiology
and biostatistics, ed 3, Gaithersburg, MD,
1990, Aspen Publishers.
Prevalence Pot
The relationship between incidence
and prevalence
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
13
Morbidity Rates (Cont.)
Incidence Rate
Number of new cases
_in given time period
× 1000
Population at risk in
same time period
___75___ = 0.02
4000–250
0.02 × 1,000 = 20 per 1000 per time period
Prevalence Rate
Number of existing cases
Total Population
250
_____
= 0.0625
4000
0.0625 × 1000 = 62.5 per 1000
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
14
Mortality Rates
(routinely collected birth and death rates)
?
?
?
?
?
Other rates
Crude rates
Age-specific rates
Age-adjusted rates or
standardization of rates
Proportionate mortality
ratio (PMR)
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
15
Number of deaths in year
× 100,000
Total population size
_1720_ = 0.0086
200,000
Number of births in year
× 100,000
Total population size
_2900_ = 0.0145
200,000
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
16
Concept of Risk
?
?
Risk—probability of an adverse event
Risk factor
?
?
?
Attributable risk
?
?
Refers to the specific exposure factor
Often external to the individual
Estimate of the disease burden in a population
Relative risk ratio
?
Divide the incidence rate of disease in the
exposed population by the incidence rate of
disease in the nonexposed population.
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
17
Use of Epidemiology
?
Disease prevention
?
Primary prevention
• Health promotion and specific prevention
? Secondary and tertiary prevention
? Establishing causality
? Screening
? Surveillance
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
18
Use of Epidemiology (Cont.)
?
Health services
?
?
?
?
Used to describe the distribution of disease
and its determinants in populations
Study population health care delivery
Evaluate use of community health services
Nurses must apply findings in practice
?
?
Incorporate results into prevention
programs for communities and at-risk
populations
Extend application into major health policy
decisions
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
19
Community health nurses should exercise
“social responsibility” in applying
epidemiological findings, but this will require the
active involvement of the consumer.
Community health nurses collaborating with
community members can combine
epidemiological knowledge and aggregate-level
strategies to affect change on the broadest
scale.
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

20
Epidemiological Methods
?
Descriptive epidemiology
?
?
Focuses on the amount and distribution of health
and health problems within a population
Analytic epidemiology
?
Investigates the causes of disease by determining
why a disease rate is lower in one population
group than in another
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
21
Analytic Epidemiology
?
Observational studies
?
?
?
?
Descriptive purposes
Etiology of disease
No manipulation by investigator
Cross-sectional studies
?
?
?
Sometimes called prevalence or correlational
studies
Examine relationships between potential causal
factors and disease at a specific time
Impossible to make causal inferences
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
22
Analytic Epidemiology (Cont.)
?
Retrospective studies
?
?
?
Compare individuals with a particular condition or
disease with those who do not have the disease
Data collection extends back in time
Prospective studies
?
?
?
Monitor a group of disease-free individuals to
determine if and when disease occurs
Cohort shares a common experience within a
defined time period
Monitors cohort for disease development
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
23
Analytic Epidemiology (Cont.)
?
Experimental design
?
Also called a Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)
• Subjects assigned to experimental or control group
• Apply experimental methods to test treatment and
prevention strategies
• Ethical considerations with human subject rights review
?
Also useful for investigating chronic disease
prevention
Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2001, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
24
NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE
Community Statistics
Submit this assignment by end of day Sunday of Week 1.
This assignment is worth 40 points of your final grade.
Name:
Date:
Student ID:
Email:
NOTE: This assignment is about the experience of using databases to locate information about your
community. Keep in mind as you complete this assignment that you may not be able to locate all data fields
listed in the worksheet.
Record the data you collect into the following tables. Record the source (website) of your data in the Source
Column. Collect the most recent data available (usually within the last 5 years). If you cannot find that data for
a few inquiries just enter “NDA” – No Data Available. However, this should be limited to two or three areas.
Selected County, State:
Marion, Ohio
Number of population
65,096
Public Services and Access to Care
Data MUST be presented as number per 1000 people or in a comparable manner (i.e. percentage by population)
Provider
Hospitals
County
State
2
184
Physicians (both
103
31,248
primary care and
(2008)
Nation
5,564
1,045,910
Last updated 10/09/2019
Statista.com
Healthy.Ohio.gov
Association of American
specialty)
Overdoses – heroin
Source/Reference of Data
Medical Colleges
NDA
1,444
13,000
Drug Abuse.gov
© 2019 School of Nursing – Ohio University
Page 1 of 8
NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE
Public
%
%
%
transportation
Demographic and Ethnic Data (Example: search Google for “Ohio, County Name, and Population”)
Data MUST be presented in a comparable manner (i.e. percentage by population)
Demographic
County
State
Nation
Source/Reference of Data
Variable
65,096
11,658,609
325,719,178
United States Census Bureau
< 5 y.o. 5.7% 6.0% 6.2% United States Census Bureau 18 and younger 20.9% 22.5% 22.8% United States Census Bureau 65 and older 16.6% 16.2% 15.2% United States Census Bureau Male 55% 49% 49.2% United States Census Bureau Female 45% 51% 50.8% United States Census Bureau White 90.5% 82.5% 76.9% United States Census Bureau Black 6.6% 12.8% 13.3% United States Census Bureau American Indian 0.3% 0.3% 1.3% United States Census Bureau Asian 0.6% 2.2% 5.7% United States Census Bureau Hispanic 2.6% 3.7% 17.8% United States Census Bureau Single NDA NDA 32% United States Census Bureau Married 42% NDA 68% United States Census Bureau Ohio Citi Health Statistics (Example: search Google for terms such as “Infant Mortality Ohio,” etc.) Data MUST be presented in a comparable manner (%, per 1000, per 100000, etc.) Last updated 10/09/2019 © 2019 School of Nursing - Ohio University Page 2 of 8 NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE Rate County State Nation Data Source Infant Mortality (Infants < 1 Y.O. Reported as per 1000 Live Births) White NDA 5.8% 4.9% 2016 Ohio Infant Mortality Report Center for Disease Control and Prevention Black NDA 15.2% 11.3% 2016 Ohio Infant Mortality Rep Center for Disease Control and Prevention ort Hispanic NDA 7.3% 5.0% 2016 Ohio Infant Mortality Report Center for Disease Control and Prevention Death Rates: (Usually reported as per 100000) Motor Vehicle 46 1,132 34,439 Accidents Insurance Institute for Highway Safety State Highway Patrol/Ohio Lung Cancer NDA 59.5 52.5 Ohio Department of Health Breast Cancer NDA 15.1 13.5 Ohio Department of Health Cardiovascular 169 26,164 610,000 Disease Center for Disease Control and Prevention Ohio Department of Health AIDS Last updated 10/09/2019 NDA 8.5/100,000 6,721 Ohio Department of Health © 2019 School of Nursing - Ohio University Page 3 of 8 NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE Center for Disease Control and Prevention Diabetes NDA 26.8 24.0 American Diabetes Association Risk Indicators: Prenatal Care (% of NDA 7.1 Mothers delivering live infants who did NOT receive prenatal care in the 1st trimester) Obesity NDA 30-35 29.6 Insufficient Physical NDA 27 24.2 Activity Center for Disease Control and Prevention Economic Statistical Data: (Example: search Google for “Ohio Income Range”) Variable County State Nation 36,400 50,674 59,039 Data Source Income Mean United States Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics Poverty rate 15.9% 19.9% 14.6% 13% Development.ohio.gov Statista.com United States Census Bureau Last updated 10/09/2019 © 2019 School of Nursing - Ohio University Page 4 of 8 NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE Unemployment Rate 14.0% 12.0% 9.8% Bureau of Labor Statistics Educational Levels: (Example: search Google for “Ohio Income Range”) Data MUST be presented in a comparable manner- i.e. % Variable City or State Nation Data Source County < High school NDA NDA NDA NDA High school 85.5% 89.5% 87.0% United States Census Bureau College degree 12.4% 26.7% 30% United States Census Bureau Analysis: Reflect on the ways the information you obtained relates to the county where you live and the Healthy People 2020 National Health Objective you have selected to study. Write a minimum 600 word summary of the key risks and concerns that you can support based upon the statistical data you have retrieved. You may want to look up some additional data that specifically pertains to the Healthy People 2020 National Health Objective that you have selected if additional information is still needed. Be sure to use citations/references APA formatted. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) refers to an infection that is preventable and is causing a crisis in the health of public. HIV is transmitted mostly through sexual intercourse. Additionally, the virus is also transmitted through sharing of needles among drug users (Nies & McEwen, 2015). Analysis of statistical data indicates the current of HIV menace. Therefore, states are taking pro-active measures to see that they enlighten the public about the disease (Cincinnati Exchange Project n.d). For instance, Cincinnati, Ohio, has come up an exchange program with prevention strategies on spread of disease. This program exchanges used needles for new ones. The objective and goal of the program is to intensify enrollment in programs related to drug treatment. Thus, the program serves as a good Last updated 10/09/2019 © 2019 School of Nursing - Ohio University Page 5 of 8 NRSE 4540: MODULE 1 ASSESSMENT 2: WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – COMMUNITY HEALTH DIAGNOSES TEMPLATE intervention tool in preventing transmission and spread of HIV. Another area that is of concern is lung cancer and it has affected a significant percentage of the population. Key contributor of lung cancer is consumption of tobacco. Tobacco is also known to cause other forms of cancer such throat and mouth cancer. In addition, conditions may be worsened with respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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