Response Guidelines

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  • Response Guidelines

Respond to one learner, commenting on an aha moment you had about either the initial or transition stage from watching the video. State which part of the video helped you understand the difference between the two stages and share at least one specific example from the video that demonstrates your understanding of the different stages.

Cassandra Cuci

Initial and Transition Stage: A Comparision

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The initial stage of the group is getting the participants together and setting up expectations for the group (Corey, Corey, & Haynes, 2014). Counselors would then go into how every individual is here to support each other and not judge anyone. There is also the importance of addressing confidentiality and how to handle conflict should it arise. Whereas, the transition stage can be a difficult process if individuals are not willing to participate in therapy (Corey, Corey, & Haynes, 2014). Participants are going to be confrontational at times, uneasy, may not want to share, become defensive or resistant. For the counselor to get the participant to actually participate there can be activities or ice breakers that can help ease some individuals. The counselor is also the person on point and should be the model of leading examples of giving empathy and ensure active listening (Corey, Corey, & Haynes, 2014).

Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Haynes, R. (2014). Groups in action: Evolution and challenges (2nd ed.) [Access code]. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two of your peers’ posts regarding women, including your perspective on women’s nondominant status. Do you agree with their assessment of the issues and ways to reduce the impact?

Socorro Matias



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Gender development is a process that continues over our life (Zunker, 2016). Related to gender roles, it is expected that that women and men behave according their gender and this is expected too when choosing a career. The society view women in jobs related to caregivers and taking care of the house, while men are view as the one that work outside the house (Zunker, 2016). Today it is seen a change in this point of view, but this is less than it is require. It can be seeing women as executive chief, business and others. Related to this, women in this type of job, but the pay are less (Zunker, 2016). Still have the need of be equality in the income for women. Other issue that remains today is the sexual harassment in the work. Sexual harassment is when someone makes sexual advances to other person that is not allowed (Zunker, 2016). Laws for preventing sexual harassment has been created, but still need to educate and create awareness that this is not right.

Any diverse group faces some kind of problems in the society. One of these groups is the African American. This group faces some issues related to racism and not getting jobs that can be competitive in society (Zunker, 2016). But an issue that needs to be address is the internalized racism; this is how this group sees himself in the society (Brown & Segrist, 2016). It is important to counselors help the client in recognize this for a better quality of life and for help in the career decision making. The counselors need to be culturally competent to address this by having an extent education in the culture of the client.


Brown, D. L. & Segrist, D. (2016). African American career aspirations: Examining the relative

influence of internalized racism. Journal of Career development, 43(2), 177-189. Retrieved from PsycInfo database

Zunker, V.G. (2016). Career Counseling: A holistic approach (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Morgan Riley

u05d1 Women and Other Cultures in the Workforce


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Gender development is a continuous process that is constantly influenced by contextual and situational factors, which ultimately, modifies the individual’s behavior (Zunker, 2016). In addition, sociocultural experiences are one of the most valuable forces that can shape an individual’s gender development (Zunker, 2016). There is significant research that suggests that men and women are more the same than they are different, and the primary focus should be shifted to contextual interactions and the socialization process, such as the work environment (Zunker, 2016). This conceptualization is especially important in career counseling. However, there are also several issues that can affect gender roles and work-related behavior, especially women (Zunker, 2016).

Inequality in the workplace is not a new concept in modern society; however, it is a lingering concern (Zunker, 2016). The industrial development in the 18th century began to influence the societal roles between men and women, which eventually placed women in a secondary position (Zunker, 2016). Although there have been many recent developments since then, the notion of inequality still exists today (Zunker, 2016). Despite the notion that women have made a comeback in well-established careers, research indicates that women still make less than men in same occupational positions (Zunker, 2016).

Furthermore, as women began to be forced into more sex “appropriate” positions due to the disproportionate employment statuses and pay, gender stereotypes begin to influence the socialization processes, which ultimately weighed heavily on their career choices, and working relationships (Zunker, 2016). The misconstrued philosophy of women remaining within a lower standard than their male counterparts, contributed to the demeaning phenomenon of sexual harassment (Zunker, 2016). Therefore, gender stereotyping remains a fundamental issue regarding discrimination within the workplace (Zunker, 2016).

From a counseling perspective, advocating for equality for all gender clients constitutes as responsible therapeutic practice (Zunker, 2016). This could be perceived as a counselor merely becoming more aware of their own values, beliefs and cultural perspective regarding gender stereotypes, fighting oppressive or discriminating policies and regulations for women within the workforce, and provide educational workshops to validate the inequality that still exists within their communities.

In addition to gender stereotypes, there is also a cultural, or racial inequality that exists within the United States (Brown & Segrist, 2016). African Americans, as well as other populations of color, are consistently dominating low status, and lower paying positions (Brown & Segrist, 2016). There is significant research that demonstrates that internalized racism that stems from the consistent racial oppression and institutional discrimination drastically affects career aspirations for the African American population (Brown & Segrist, 2016). Essentially, this suggests a negative influence of internalized racial oppression on aspirations, and work behavior, among African American citizens (Brown & Segrist, 2016). This provides an excellent outlet for counselors to advocate for their clients of color, by encouraging self-exploration on an intimate and individual level, as well as fighting for more culturally sensitive institutional policies, laws and regulations within their communities. For example, counselors provide support groups for their clients, as well as participate in national conferences that educate and participate in a monumental movement in order to fight against racial oppression. Therefore, counselor cultural competence remains a vital component to ethical career counseling practice (Zunker, 2016).


Zunker, V. G. (2016) Career counseling: A holistic approach (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cenagage.

Brown, D. L., & Segrist, D. (2016). African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism. Journal of Career Development, 43(2), 177–189.

  • Response Guidelines

Read the posts of your peers and respond to one. What stereotypes or myths of aging do you feel could be related to the artifact that your peer has chosen in his or her post?

Kamille Mitchell

Unit 5 Discussion 1


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Unit 5 Discussion 1

Memory is the most important cognitive ability we have. Our memory allows us to maintain our identity through past experiences (Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fiels, 2019). Reviewing past experiences encourages human development by helping aging adults’ cognitive ability. By reviewing past experiences it allows them to process by retrieving information.

An artifact I have that would be helpful in me remembering a significant life event would be a picture I have of my mother, father, and myself. The picture was taken when I was sixteen years old and it is the only picture we have with all of us on one photo together. I think it will affect my memory as I get older in a positive way by helping me remember my father. He passed away in a car accident when I was eighteen and sometimes it’s hard to remember certain things although I grew up in the house with him and my mother, for example, his voice. I have home videos that I watch sometimes just to remember.


Cavanaugh, J., and Blanchard-Fields, F., (2019). Adult Development and Aging 8th Ed.

Cengage Learning, Inc. Boston, MA. Pgs. 159-183.

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  • Response Guidelines

Read the responses of your peers and respond to one. Critically review your peer’s application of theory and identify those aspects that, in your analysis, are the most enlightening. Identify one aspect about which you have a question and pose that question.

Natisha Melchor

Natisha Melchor (5)


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The events leading to up to Mel’s accident, as well as the change in Addie’s behavior, are not necessarily solely caused by the aging process. A person can have a stroke at any point in their life and a change in behavior in regards to work or social environment can happen at any point in a person’s life. Wahlheim (2018), theorizes changes during the aging process varies according to each individual and what contributors are present. However, in this instance, health associated with age is a factor for this couple Cavanaugh, J.C., & Blanchard-Fields, F.(2019). Mel’s poor health, in addition to his age, contributed to his accident. In the case of Addie, her son believes the change in her behavior being attributed to her aging. Cavanaugh, J.C., & Blanchard-Fields, F.(2019) tells a person’s mental and physical health contributes to aging during the development process as well as social interactions. Besides, adaption to changes during the aging process assists with survival. Addie’s willingness to sacrifice her job and social life to take care of her husband speak to her perception of her role in her relationship as a wife and her husband’s caregiver. Thus, the context in which she sees herself in her relationship as a woman Cavanaugh, J.C., & Blanchard-Fields, F.(2019). Although she may be experiencing some changes in her physical and cognitive health during her aging process, she is independent.

The lifespan theory can be used to analyze this case study. Mel’s decline in health and safety concerns has caused Addie to rethink how she spends her time. She has vowed to be more inclusive of her husband’s needs. The new circumstances of their relationship are a contributing factor to the decision. Whereas her son, who believes his father would benefit from 24-hour professional care, Addie’s traditional belief is she is responsible for her mate Cavanaugh, J.C., & Blanchard-Fields, F.(2019).

Wahlheim, C.N., & Zacks, J.M. (2018). Individual variation in memory and cognition. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7(4), 514-517. Doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2018.10.001

Cavanaugh, J.C., & Blanchard-Fields, F.(2019). Adult development and aging (8 th ed.). Boston, MA:Cengage


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