The Point of Origin Method and Apparatus Report You’re required to write some parts of a technical report about robotic project. The parts that you have to

The Point of Origin Method and Apparatus Report You’re required to write some parts of a technical report about robotic project. The parts that you have to write about are: Methods and material, result, and conclusion. you don’t have to worry about the rest. i will provide to you a copy of: 1-rubric. 2- project details. 3- project code. 4- sample of technical report, so you can see how the final result should look like. the sample contains some pictures in the methods and materials, you don’t have to worry about posting them. i just need you to write the methodology, result, and conclusion. Abstract
The assignment was to improve the accuracy of the OWI robots, and this is achieved by
making the base motor rotate from one side to another, and this robot is said to have no vertical
component to it. The arm at first was set to move six seconds outbound and six seconds back
inbound and then mark every place that is steps on after that movement. Secondly, the time
inbound was adjusted to get the maximum accurate distance measurement between every mark
that the robot creates, the robot was known to not be very accurate therefore the inward time had
to be adjusted because without the adjustment, the robot is exposed to going over or under the
specified starting point (depending on the robot).
Table of contents
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
1
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2
Problem statement ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
3
Objective ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
4
Background ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
5
Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
5.1
The point of origin ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
5.2
First Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
5.3
Second Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
6
Results ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
7
Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
7.1
The first test. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
7.2
The second test. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
7.3
Consideration of external factors ………………………………………………………………………………. 11
8
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
9
Recommendations Future Work ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
10 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
11 Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
List of figures
Figure 1 Robot arm positioned at a 45 degrees angle ……………………………………………………………………….. 4
Figure 2 Robot plotting points ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Figure 3 Graph of first robot’s data ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Figure 4 Graph of the second robot’s data……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Figure 5 Graph of the third robot’s data ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Figure 6 Unmodified data from first robot…………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Figure 7 Modified data from first robot ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
Figure 8 Modified data from second robot ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Figure 9 Original data from second robot ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Figure 10 unmodified data from third robot ………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Figure 11 Modified data from third robot ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
List of tables
Table 1 Data collected from first robot …………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Table 2 Data collected from the second robot …………………………………………………………………………………. 8
ii
Table 3 Data collected from third robot ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
iii
1 Introduction
Capability studies are very important for an engineer, in the future testing the capability of a
device is very important to ensure that the device is to its maximum potential because if it is not,
then that is a loss on the companies that go over these devices. This robot capability study is a
minor insight on how capability studies are done for big companies. big systems and big
machinery. Knowing how to increase the accuracy of the robot helps us in the future in
improving the projects we have in the future as engineers.
2 Problem statement
The problem with the robots is with their accuracy, making the robot rotate for a certain
span of time and making it return using the same length of time, it will not return to the same
spot. This can be tested by attaching a marker to the robot and then marking an initial point and
enabling the rotation of the robot and then marking the second, the distance between the two
points will vary unless the inward time is adjusted to get closer and closer to the initial point.
3 Objective
•
Detecting whether the robot is a case of overshooting or undershooting (going after the
initial point or before the initial point) using six seconds for the inbound and the
outbound times for the base motor.
•
Adjust the inbound time for the base motor to make the consecutive points closer to each
other without changing the outbound time from six seconds.
1
•
Using the process capability to determine the tolerance that a process can hold. Cp of
1.66 is the minimum accepted value for the Capable Process, a Cp less than 1.3 is not
accepted. A Cp between 1.33 and 1.66 is marginally accepted and it still requires
corrective action to get better capability. The tolerance range can be found by assuming
that any Cp below 1.66 is not accepted and the maximum tolerance range can be found
by considering Cp as 1.66.
4 Background
Manufacturers and all set of people who need to keep track of their product improvement
after certain tests usually need to do capability analysis, however, the analysis is conducted either
by analysis needs or numerical values that indicate whether the test meets the specification or not
by comparing the values to the expected tolerance range (datasciencecentral.com 2018). For a
certain data to be analyzed it has to be statistically stable with no weird fluctuation going on, if
the data is not stable, the analysis cannot be used to predict the capability of the system in future,
it would only give a shot of the process at its best performance. Whereas if the system maintains
a stable data, the results could be used for a future predictions of system performance
(pqsystems.com 2019).
The scatter of the data is given by the Standard Deviation (?), so a higher value of (?) gives
a wider scatter. This leads to the first equation:
???? =
(?????????????????? ??????????)
6?
Equation 1 – ratio of process capability
2
Cp in equation 1 is the ratio the maximum tolerance range to (6?), for a normally
distributed data, number 6 refers to the largest part of data. As per that, 6? would enclose
approximately 99.9974% of the data (itl.nist.gov 1993). In reality, analysis conductors are
expecting a value of Cp around 1.66 for a good performance capability, and not less than 1.33
which is considered totally unacceptable and illustrates such a huge defect in the system. Most
companies require a value greater than 1.33 for their parts (quality-one.com 2015).
Rearranging the equation leads to finding the maximum tolerance range, which defines
the limits and the boundaries that a defective system could go across:
?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? = 6 ? 1.66 ? ?
Equation 2 – maximum tolerance range
CpK is another measure of process capability and is called Process Capability Index, to
illustrate this quantity, a real-world example could be used. If a car is moving along a bridge and
there are no safety sides at the edges of the bridge, so the car has to maintain its way strictly
straight through to not fall out. Cp value would measure the distance from the car to the edges
and CpK would measure how well the car maintained its position in the center (isixsigma.com
2019).
3
5 Methodology
Three robot torsos went through tests in order to get the most accurate analysis and each
robot went through two tests, the first test was when it had six seconds outbound and six seconds
inbound and the second test the outbound was stabilized at six seconds but the inbound time was
changed to get the most accurate measuring distance between each of the points created by the
robot.
5.1 The point of origin
1. A marker was placed on the robot’s clipper.
2. A piece of paper was set in front of the robot.
Figure 1 Robot arm positioned at a 45 degrees angle
3. The robotic arm was positioned at 45 degrees prior to testing.
4. An initial point was marked.
5. The code was set to make the robot create new points on the piece of paper placed infant
of it.
4
5.2 First Test
1. A MATLAB code was run to make the robot go six seconds outbound and six seconds
inbound.
2. Ten points were created using the code (figure 2).
Figure 2 Robot plotting points
3. Solid lines were drawn to be perpendicular to the points and the lines were parallel to
each other.
4. Distances between the points were measured using a ruler.
5. The measured points were inputted into the MATLAB code and the MATLAB code was
able to calculate all the data required.
5.3 Second Test
1. Using the same parameters, the MATLAB code made the robot go six seconds outbound
and adjusted inbound time.
2. The inbound time was changed to stop the overshooting or undershooting in comparison
to the initial point.
3. Ten points were marked as shown in figure 2.
4. The distance between the points was measured using a ruler.
5
5. All the data measured was inputted into the MATLAB code and MATLAB calculated all
the required data.
6 Results
The robots were tested are the results are:
Torso Motor
Time outbound
(sec)
Time inbound
(sec)
1st Distance
(inch)
2nd Distance
(inch)
3rd Distance
(inch)
4th Distance
(inch)
5th Distance
(inch)
6th Distance
(inch)
7th Distance
(inch)
8th Distance
(inch)
9th Distance
(inch)
10th Distance
(inch)
Maximum
(inch)
Minimum (inch)
Unmodified
Modified
6
6
6
6
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.7
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.7
0.5
0.2
0.2
6
Mean (inch)
Median (inch)
Standard
Deviation (inch)
Tolerance Range
(inch)
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.9
1.1
1- The data which was collected from the first
robot. Then the maximum value, minimum
value, mean, median, standard deviation and
tolerance range were calculated is shown in
the Table 1 and figure 3.
Table 1 Data collected from first robot
Figure 3 Graph of first robot’s data
2- The data which was collected from the second robot. Then the maximum value,
minimum value, mean, median, standard deviation and tolerance range were
calculated is shown in the Table 2 and figure 4.
7
Table 2 Data collected from the second robot
Torso Motor
Time
outbound
(sec)
Time
inbound
(sec)
st
1 Distance
unmodified
modified
6
6
6
6
4.0
3.0
2nd Distance
10.5
1.5
3rd Distance
7.0
3.0
4th Distance
6.0
5.0
5th Distance
6.5
4.0
6th Distance
9.0
3.0
7th Distance
1.5
1.5
8th Distance
3.0
3.0
9th Distance
Maximum
(mm)
Minimum
(mm)
Mean (mm)
Median
(mm)
Standard
Deviation
(mm)
Tolerance
Range (mm)
3.5
3.5
10.5
5.0
1.5
1.5
5.7
3.1
6.0
3.0
2.9
1.3
29.3
13.4
Figure 4 Graph of the second robot’s data
3-
The data which was collected from
the third robot. Then the maximum value,
minimum value, mean, median, standard
8
deviation and tolerance range were calculated is shown in the Table 3 and figure
5.
Table 3 Data collected from third robot
Torso Motor
Unmodified
Modified
Time outbound
(sec)
Time inbound
(sec)
6
6
6
5.9
1st Distance (inch)
0.43
0.20
2nd Distance
(inch)
rd
3 Distance
(inch)
0.55
0.24
0.67
0.24
4th Distance (inch)
0.63
0.12
5th Distance (inch)
0.40
0.24
6th Distance (inch)
0.43
0.16
7th Distance (inch)
0.47
0.20
8th Distance (inch)
0.40
0.28
9th Distance (inch)
0.6
0.31
Maximum (inch)
0.7
0.3
Minimum (inch)
0.4
0.1
Mean (inch)
0.5
0.2
Median (inch)
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.1
1.0
0.6
Standard
Deviation (inch)
Tolerance Range
(inch)
Figure 5 Graph of the third robot’s data
7 Discussion
Three robots were taken to testing to measure the distances between two points and calculate the
rest of the data as can be seen from the tables above. The testing was concluded in two tests.
9
7.1 The first test.
An initial point was set, and a MATLAB user defined code was used to make the robot
have an outbound and an inbound time of six seconds, it was seen that one of the three robots
was overshooting beyond the initial point; however, two of them were undershooting. The
overshooting and undershooting of the robots caused a big gap between the points therefore large
distances were measured in figures (table 1, table 2, and table 3). Since the points that were
measured had a large value, by setting the maximum capability process to 1.66, the standard
deviation and the tolerance were of high value.
7.2 The second test.
During this test, the only manipulation that could have been done was time, therefore it can
be seen that the inbound was changed from the initial time and this resulted in decreasing the
value of the distance measured from the first test for the one of robots and increase value of the
other two. There was a major difference between the graphs as seen between (figure 3, figure 4,
and figure 5). Using the same parameters as the first test, the tolerance range and the standard
deviation were calculated and since the time was modified there was an increase in the accuracy
of the robotic arm that resulted in a decreased standard deviation and tolerance range. This
change can be seen more accurately in the graphs as the graphs have less scatter than that of the
first test.
10
7.3 Consideration of external factors
Capability studies are a contribution to the wellbeing of the public, engineers are withdrawn
to the responsibility of what is being presented. Engineers are to go by their code of ethics, and
this makes engineers in general have connection to different cultures.
8 Conclusion
The goal of the project lied in adjusting the inbound time of the robot in order to get the
maximum accuracy that can be achieved using the robotic arm. The robot would go through two
tests in which the accuracy is measured, the first test lied in the fact that it needed to have
parameters of six seconds for both the inbound and the outbound time, but in the second test the
parameters changed, the outbound was to stay the same as six seconds but the inbound time
changed accordingly to make the robot more and more accurate. This sort of study is important
for companies specially the OWI factories because they can be aware of the mistakes
encountered while making the robot and try to make their products better by doing certain things
and improving specific aspects in order to gain the maximum accuracy that could be gained.
9 Recommendations Future Work
A robot cannot perform a task to its maximum potential if it is not accurate; therefore, for a robot
to be super beneficial it needs to have the maximum accuracy that it can get. Improving the accuracy of
a robot is based on a lot of factors, from these factors is the foundation of the robot and the materials
used to build it. If the robot was built out of metal, it would have more stable gearboxes therefore a
smoother movement and that would increase the accuracy by a great margin.
11
10 References
“How to Explain and Understand Process Capability.” ISixSigma, www.isixsigma.com/toolstemplates/capability-indices-process-capability/how-to-explain-and-understand-processcapability/.
“Process Capability Analysis: Definition.” Statistics How To, 11 Sept. 2018,
www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/process-capability-analysis/.
“Process Capability.” Quality-One, quality-one.com/process-capability/.
“Quality Advisor.” Pareto Diagram (What Is It? When Is It Used?) | Data Analysis Tools |
Quality Advisor,
www.pqsystems.com/qualityadvisor/DataAnalysisTools/capability_analysis.php.
Weibull Plot, www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section1/pmc16.htm.
12
11 Appendices
Figure 6 Unmodified data from first robot
Figure 7 Modified data from first robot
13
Figure 8 Original data from second robot
Figure 9 Modified data from second robot
14
Figure 8 unmodified data from third robot
Figure 9 Modified data from third robot
15
Project 1
Robot Programming Using an Arduino Controller and Matlab
The Objective is to use the Arduino controller, programmed using Matlab, to study the performance
characteristics of the motors. Most of the project is individual. I expect students to help one another,
but no one should do the project for another student. You may not use another student’s robot for data
collection or use another student’s data.
Part A: Individual Using the separate handout “Robotic Set Up of the Arduino Controller” and the files
provided, configure your Arduino so that it can be controlled by Matlab on your laptop. Build the robot,
interface your computer with the Arduino, command it using Matlab, wire at least three motors (torso,
shoulder, elbow) through the H-bridges and control each independently.
Build the robot using the instructions in the kit. Some words of caution before you start: This will take a
couple of hours, so give yourself a clear space to work and bring a lot of patience. Separate the screws
and account for all before you start. Some are close in size and are easy to confuse. Be careful to “Snugtight” the screws, but do not over-tighten or they may strip out the plastic. When assembling the
transmissions, put in the gears before the nuts, and the nuts must be seated correctly. A wooden
toothpick or non-magnetic tool might help, or you can thread one of the correct bolts through the nut to
use as a temporary “handle.” You will not need the control box with its toggle switches or batteries, but
you are welcome to assemble it, plug in batteries and run the bot manually if you like. If you do, remove
all batteries befor…
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