Use the Graphs>Legacy>Bar menu of SPSS to show, in a single figure, bar charts with error bars illustrating mean Leniency values and their 95% confidence intervals for the 4 facial expressions in the study. | Browse Homework Help
Before you begin this assignment, take a moment to look at the syllabus available on the course CuLearn site. Page 2 contains a section titled Sole authorship of assignments which outlines the rules you should obey when writing up assignments and the possible penalties that you might face if you do not live up to them. You should read this section closely before submitting your assignment. This assignment uses the same data as in your Assignment 2. You are given permission to reuse your own wording and ideas from that assignment if you think they are suitable for Assignment 4. You must not use ideas or wording from the official demo solution for Assignment 2 that is posted on the course CuLearn site. ,
In order to do well on this assignment you should read sections A-E of the Guidelines for Writing Assignments document available on the course cuLearn site. You will be marked according to the information in these sections. In aIDition, the marking for this assignment will place greater emphasis than before on clear, concise, meaningful communication.
In this assignment you will once again analyze data from the Smiles and Leniency study by LaFrance and Hecht. When writing up this assignment you are to adopt the viewpoint that, psychologically, the Felt and Miserable smiles are meant to convey a sincere reflection of an accuseds mental state whereas a False smile is insincere.
After downloading the data according to the instructions in Assignment 2, follow the instructions below. Some are quite brief. This is because you are now expected to know enough about the analysis of data that you will be able to fill in what is not said explicitly. For instance you now know that you always need to make sure that the Variable View window in SPSS is filled in properly and that when you present figures and tables they need to convey information clearly and have informative captions.
- Use the Graphs>Legacy>Bar menu of SPSS to show, in a single figure, bar charts with error bars illustrating mean Leniency values and their 95% confidence intervals for the 4 facial expressions in the study. This will be Figure 1.
- Use SPSS to calculate the sample size, mean, and variance of the Leniency scores for each of the 4 experimental groups. Put all this information in a table. This will be Table 1. The heading of the leftmost column in this table must contain specific information about the nature of the groups in this experiment (i.e., not something like Treatment Group which could have been written for any experiment).
- Use the Analyze>Compare Means>One-Way ANOVA command in SPSS to perform an ANOVA on the Leniency Use the newly posted SPSS tutorial called 1-Way ANOVA to help you do this. When the one-way ANOVA dialog box comes up, click the Options button and ask for a Homogeneity of Variance test (Levenes test) to be included with the outputs. Also, in the one-way ANOVA dialog box, click the Contrasts button and then use the dialog that pops up to set up the following 3 a priori contrasts: 1) a contrast comparing mean Leniency score for the Neutral facial expression against the average for all other facial expressions, 2) a contrast comparing the average of mean Leniency scores for sincere smiles with the mean for insincere smiles and, 3) a contrast comparing the mean Leniency scores of the 2 sincere-smile types.
- Treat the 3 contrasts as a family of a priori tests over which you need to control the family-wise error rate to 5% using a Bonferroni correction. Calculate, by hand, Cohens d for each contrast (see the formulas in the Week 15 Multiple Comparisons II course notes for these calculations).
Instructions for assembling the assignment:
Give your results in the following order using the same letters as shown below to divide the report into sections (dont forget to number the figures and tables as outlined in the Assignment Guidelines document). In your assignment, you must put linking statements in italics so that the people marking your assignment will know what you consider a linking statement. Take care that the linking statements that appear at the ends of each section are not overly statistical. Instead, each one should act as an update for the reader about the overall case you are building regarding the psychology of smiling and leniency. Do not exceed the line limits shown in bold.
If you are told to do something as in a previous assignment, this means to use the instructions in that assignment as guidelines but to adapt everything to the data in this assignment.
- Introduction: A single paragraph following the same instructions Assignment 3. Use no more than 12 lines in this section (variable list excluded).
- Effect of facial expression on leniency: Follow the same general instructions as for section B of Assignment 3 including linking statements at the beginning and end of the section. When discussing Figure 12, be sure to include your views on what the confidence intervals tell you about the differences between the mean values shown. Use no more than 10 lines of text in this section.
- Overall analysis of the effect of facial expression on leniency: Begin with a linking statement that tells the reader the single most important thing you want to accomplish in this section and how you intend to do it. Now show the table you made in step 2 and describe its contents for the reader. Report the results of Levenes test and state the relevance of this test for the ANOVA you conducted in step 3. Report the results of that ANOVA using the formal style you have learned in class for reporting test results. End with a linking statement telling the reader what you think is the most important finding in this section and how it leads to the next section. Use no more than 15 lines of text in this section.
- Finer-scale analysis of leniency results: Begin with a linking statement describing what you intend to accomplish by testing the contrasts you created in step 4. Be sure the reader understands the nature of the contrasts you conducted and why they have been chosen over other possible contrasts. Next report the results of the t-tests on the contrasts. Begin by informing the reader what steps you have taken to control the family-wise error rate (when you do this be clear about what you consider the family of tests to be). Then report the results of these tests in the usual way you have reported t-test results in the past. Once again, Cohens d values should begin the segment of numerical results that back up each test report. End with a linking statement telling the reader what you think is the most important finding in this section. You dont need to say how it will lead to the next section this time. Use no more than 12 lines of text in this section.
- Conclusion: In this section state the two most important conclusions you have arrived at in your analysis. Your conclusions should be framed primarily in psychological (rather than statistical) terms and must be data-driven in the sense that you could not have written them before undertaking your analysis in sections B-D. Next, point out how your view of the Big Idea has been affected by your analyses. Finally, suggest a different way in which the constructs in your Big Idea could have been operationalized. This alternative operationalization must avoid reusing any of the independent or dependent variables in this study. Use no more than 12 lines of text in this section.
This assignment is meant to
- Give you practice in communicating the results of hypothesis tests clearly
- Get you to begin thinking about testing multiple hypotheses
- Give you practise in creating a logical flow of argument throughout multiple sections of a paper